Bibliography – Postwar German Immigration to Canada

Refugee Stories: The Immigration and Resettlement of Germans in Western Canada, 1947-1960


Angus, H. F. “Need for an Immigration Policy.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 253 (1947): 16–21.

Avery, Donald H. “Canadian Immigration Policy Towards Europe, 1945-1952: Altrusim and Economic Self Interest.” Zeitschrift Der Gesellschaft Fur Kanada-Studien, 1986, 37–56.

———. Reluctant Host: Canada’s Response to Immigrant Workers. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart Inc., 1995.

Bassler, Gerhard P. “Canadian Postwar Immigration Policy and the Admission of German Enemy Aliens, 1945-50.” Yearbook of German-American Studies 22 (1987): 183–97.

Bassler, Gerhard P. “German Immigration to Canada 1945-1950: Issues and Questions.” German-Canadian Studies Annals 6 (1988): 168–79.

Bassler, Gerhard P. “German Overseas Migration to North America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Recent German Research from a Canadian Perspective.” German Canadian Yearbook VII, 1983, 8–21.

Bassler, Gerhard P. The German Canadian Mosaic Today and Yesterday: Identities, Roots, and Heritage. Ottawa: German-Canadian Congress, 1991.

Beattie, Laura Jean. “The Ethnic Church and Immigrant Integration: Social Services, Cultural Preservation and the Re-Definition of Cultural Identity.” University of British Columbia, 1998.

Broadfoot, Barry. The Immigrant Years: From Europe to Canada, 1945-1967. Vancouver, British Columbia: Douglas & McIntyre, 1986.

Bruce, Jean. After the War. Toronto, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1982.

Corbett, David. “Canada’s Immigration Policy, 1957-1962.” International Journal 18, no. 2 (1963): 166–80.

———. Canada’s Immigration Policy: A Critique. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1957.

———. “Immigrants and Canada’s Economic Expansion.” International Labour Review 77 (1958): 19–37.

———. “Immigration and Canadian Politics.” International Journal 6, no. 3 (1951): 207–16.

Creighton, Donald. The Forked Road, Canada 1939-1957. Toronto, Ontario: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1976.

Cronmiller, Carl Raymond. A History of the Lutheran Church in Canada. Toronto? Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Canada, 1961.

Dirks, Gerald E. “A Policy Within a Policy: The Identification and Admission of Refugees to Canada.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 17, no. 2 (June 1984): 279–307.

———. Canada’s Refugee Policy: Indifference or Opportunism? Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1977.

Epp, George K. “Mennonite Immigration to Canada after World War II.” Journal of Mennonite Studies 5 (1989): 108–19.

Evenson, George O. Adventuring for Christ: The Story of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Canada. Calgary: Foothills Lutheran Press, 1974.

Finkel, Alvin. “Canadian Immigration Policy and the Cold War, 1945-1980.” Journal of Canadian Studies 21, no. 3 (1986): 53–69.

Fong, Eric, and Rima Wilkes. “Racial and Ethnic Residential Patterns in Canada.” Sociological Forum 18, no. 4 (2003): 577–602.

Freund, Alexander. Beyond the Nation?: Immigrants’ Local Lives in Transnational Cultures. University of Toronto Press, 2012.

———. “Contesting the Meanings of Migration: German Women’s Immigration to Canada in the 1950s.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 41/42, no. 3–1 (January 2010): 1–26.

———. “Multicultural Memories? Germans in Canada Since the Second World War,” 20. Montreal, Quebec, 2007.

———. Oral History and Ethnic History. Immigration and Ethnicity in Canada Series 32. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 2014.

———. “Representing ‘New Canadians’: Competing Narratives about Recent German Immigrants to Manitoba.” Journal of Mennonite Studies 30 (2012): 339–61.

———. “Transnationalizing Home in Winnipeg: Refugees’ Stories of the Places Between the ‘Here-and-There.’” Canadian Ethnic Studies 47, no. 1 (January 2015): 61–86.

———. “Troubling Memories in Nation-Building: World War II Memories and Germans’ Inter-Ethnic Encounters in Canada After 1945.” Histoire Sociale/Social History 39, no. 77 (2006): 129–55.

Freund, Alexander, and Laura Quilici. “Exploring Myths in Women’s Narratives: Italian and German Immigrant Women in Vancouver, 1947-1961.” Oral History Review 23, no. 2 (Winter 1996): 19.

Friedmann, Wolfgang. German Immigration into Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1952.

Gilmour, Julie Frances. “‘The Kind of People Canada Wants’: Canada and the Displaced Persons, 1943-1953.” Ph.D., University of Toronto, 2009.

Grams, Grant. “Der Volksverein Deutsch-Canadischer Katholiken: The Rise and Fall of a German-Catholic Cultural and Immigration Society, 1909-1952.” Catholic Historical Review 99, no. 3 (July 2013): 480–98.

Grams, Grant W. “T.O.F. Herzer and His Work with German-Speaking Immigration to Canada.” Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society 48, no. 2 (September 2006): 161–83.

Grenke, Arthur. Archival Sources for the Study of German Language Groups in Canada, n.d.

———. Sources at the National Archives for the study of German immigration to Canada. Ottawa: Historical Resources Branch, National Archives of Canada, 1993.

———. “The Archival Record of German-Language Groups in Canada: A Survey.” Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 214–31.

Gumpp, Ruth. “Ethnicity and Assimilation: German Postwar Immigrants in Vancouver, 1945-1970.” University of British Columbia, 1989.

Harris, E. Meaghan. “East Germans, Refugees, and New Canadians — a Family Migration.” Text, Carleton University, 2006.

Hawkins, Freda. Canada and Immigration: Public Policy and Public Concern. Kingston, Ont.: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1972.

Heier, Edmund. “A Study of the German Lutheran and Catholic Immigrants in Canada, Formerly Residing in Tzarist and Soviet Russia.” University of British Columbia, 1955.

———. “The Immigration of the Russo-German Catholics and Lutherans into Canada.” Canadian Slavonic Papers 4, no. 1 (1959): 160–75.

Kalbach, Madeline A., and Warren E. Kalbach. “The Importance of Ethnic-Connectedness of Canada’s Post-War Immigrants.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 27, no. 2 (June 1995): 16.

Keenleyside, H. L. “Canadian Immigration Policy.” International Journal 3, no. 3 (1948): 222–38.

Kelley, Ninette, and M. J. Trebilcock. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Knowles, Valerie. Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship and Immigration, 1900-1977. Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 1997.

Lieb, Christian. “Moving West: German-Speaking Immigration to British Columbia, 1945–1961.” University of Victoria, 2008.

Maeder, Pascal. Forging a New Heimat: Expellees in Post-War West Germany and Canada. Göttingen: V & R Unipress, 2011.

Monk, Clifton L. “Canadian Lutheran World Relief: A View from the Inside to October 31, 1961.” Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1990.

Ongley, Patrick, and David Pearson. “Post-1945 International Migration: New Zealand, Australia and Canada Compared.” The International Migration Review 29, no. 3 (1995): 765–93.

Parai, Louis. “Canada’s Immigration Policy, 1962-74.” The International Migration Review 9, no. 4 (1975): 449–77.

Paul, Jeanette Katharine. “Submerged Identities: German Canadian Immigrants (1945-1960).” University of British Columbia, 2005.

Poetschke, Thomas R. “Reasons for Immigration and Ethnic Identity: An Exploratory Study of German Immigrants in Edmonton, Alberta.” University of Alberta, 1978.

Rawlyk, G.A. “Canada’s Immigration Policy, 1945-1962.” The Dalhousie Review 42, no. 3 (1962): 287–300.

Redekop, Benjamin Wall. “The German Identity of Mennonite Brethren Immigrants in Canada, 1930-1960,” 1990.

Regehr, T. D. “Of Dutch or German Ancestry? Mennonite Refugees, MCC, and the Intenational Refugee Organization.” Journal of Mennonite Studies 13 (January 1995): 7–25.

Richmond, Anthony H. “Immigration and Pluralism in Canada.” The International Migration Review 4, no. 1 (1969): 5–24.

———. Post-War Immigrants in Canada. University of Toronto Press, 1967.

Schmalz, Ronald E. “Former Enemies Come to Canada: Ottawa and the Postwar German Immigration Boom, 1951-57.” Thesis, University of Ottawa (Canada), 2000.

Schulze, Mathias, ed. German Diasporic Experiences: Identity, Migration, and Loss. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008.

Sturhahn, William J. H, and North American Baptist Immigration and Colonization Society. They Came from East and West …: A History of Immigration to Canada. Winnipeg: North American Baptist Immigration and Colonization Society, 1976.

Threinen, Norman J. A Religious-Cultural Mosaic: A History of Lutherans in Canada. Vulcan, Alta: Today’s Reformation Press Incorporated, 2006.

———. “Canadian Lutheran Response to the Challenges of Post-World War II Immigration.” St. Louis, 1978.

Troper, Harold. “Canada’s Immigration Policy since 1945.” International Journal 48, no. 2 (1993): 255–81.

Werner, Hans P. “Integration in Two Cities: A Comparative History of Protestant Ethnic German Immigrants in Winnipeg, Canada and Bielefeld, Germany, 1947-1989.” [Hans P. Werner], 2002.

Whitaker, Reg. Canadian Immigration Policy. Immigration and Ethnicity in Canada Series 15. Ottawa: Canadain Historical Association, 1991.